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The Different Types of Coffee Roasts and Their Flavor Profiles

Roasted Coffee Beans on Round Wok
Photo by Aleksandar Pasaric from Pexels

Coffee, a staple in many households and workplaces around the globe, is far more than just a hot beverage to help shake off morning grogginess or push through an afternoon slump. It is a rich cultural tradition, a multi-billion dollar industry and a source of pleasure and ritual for millions of people worldwide.

Integral to the pleasure of drinking coffee is the process by which it is prepared. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of this process is the roasting of the coffee beans. Roasting is not only about transforming green coffee beans into the aromatic, brown beans that we typically associate with coffee. It's also a fundamental step that determines the flavor of your cup of Joe, its body, and its acidity.

Coffee roasts are typically categorized into four types: light, medium, medium-dark and dark. Each type of roast results in a different flavor profile, which can range from light and fruity to dark and bitter. However, the spectrum of coffee flavors is not just limited to these four categories. Many variations and nuances exist within each type, reflecting the delicate interplay of roast degree, coffee bean origin and brewing technique.

This article aims to guide you through the fascinating world of coffee roasts, exploring the unique characteristics and flavor profiles of each roast type. Whether you're a casual coffee drinker looking to better understand what goes into your daily brew, or a budding coffee connoisseur eager to dive deeper into your passion, there's plenty to discover in the journey ahead. 

Understanding Coffee Roasting

Shallow Focus Photo of Coffee Beans in Roaster
Photo by Juan Pablo Serrano Arenas

Coffee roasting is an art and science unto itself, a process that transforms the raw, green coffee beans into the aromatic, flavorful ones we use to brew our daily cup. The process begins by heating the beans in a roasting machine. As the temperature inside the beans increases, they start to turn brown, a process known as the Maillard reaction, which also results in the generation of hundreds of aromatic compounds.

The roasting process significantly influences the taste of the coffee. It helps unlock the flavors and aromas that are tightly packed within the raw beans. But, the degree to which a bean is roasted directly affects its flavor characteristics. Lighter roasts tend to preserve more of the original characteristics of the beans, including its natural flavors and acidity, while darker roasts result in flavors developed from the roasting process itself, often yielding a bolder, more robust cup with lower acidity.

From a chemistry perspective, coffee roasting is fascinating. When heat is applied to the green coffee beans, it induces a series of chemical reactions. Among these reactions is the Maillard reaction, a form of non-enzymatic browning that occurs between amino acids and reducing sugars in the beans. 

This reaction is responsible for creating many of the complex flavors and brown color we associate with coffee. In addition to the Maillard reaction, caramelization occurs, especially in darker roasts, transforming sugars in the beans into a multitude of compounds contributing to taste and aroma. Thus, through roasting, the green coffee beans' inherent potential is unlocked and the flavors we love in coffee are born. 

Light Roasts

Light Roasted Coffee Beans
Photo by Lukas

Light roasts, as the name suggests, are beans that have been roasted for a shorter amount of time compared to their darker counterparts. This roast type is characterized by a light brown color, with no oil on the surface of the beans as they haven't roasted long enough for the oil to break through. Light roasts have a toasted grain taste and pronounced acidity.

There are several types of light roasts, including Light City, Half City and Cinnamon roast. These names vary depending on the region and roasting tradition, but they all indicate a lighter degree of roast that stops at or just after the first crack in the roasting process, a point where beans make a cracking sound as moisture and carbon dioxide expand and break the bean's cell walls.

Light roasts are known for their more complex and subtle flavor profiles. They typically retain more of the original coffee's characteristics, including the unique flavors from the bean's origin, such as floral, fruity, or earthy tones. In terms of brewing, light roasts can be best enjoyed with methods that highlight these nuanced flavors, such as pour-over or Aeropress.

Some coffees that are often lightly roasted include Ethiopian coffees, which are known for their bright and fruity flavors, and some Central American coffees, renowned for their light body and sharp acidity. Light roasting these beans allows these intrinsic qualities to shine, offering a flavorful and multi-dimensional cup of coffee. 

Medium Roasts

Close-up Photography of Roasted Coffee Beans
Photo by samer daboul

Medium roasts, often known as the 'American roast' due to its popularity in the United States, occupy the middle ground in the roasting spectrum. These beans are medium brown in color, slightly darker than light roasts, with a balanced flavor, aroma and acidity. The beans may have a slight sheen of oil on their surface, hinting at the emergence of flavors developed during roasting.

Popular types of medium roasts include City, American and Breakfast roasts. The roasting process is usually stopped at the end of the first crack or just at the beginning of the second crack, a second stage in the roasting process where beans crack again due to escalating temperature and pressure.

Medium roasts strike a balance between preserving the beans' inherent characteristics and developing new flavors through roasting. They are less acidic than light roasts, with a more balanced flavor profile, and often reveal notes of sweetness, like caramel or milk chocolate. These roasts are versatile in brewing methods and are suitable for a range of techniques from drip brewing to espresso making.

Many Latin American coffees, such as Colombian and Costa Rican, are often medium roasted. These beans, known for their balanced flavors and medium body, can fully express their potential when roasted to this level. Similarly, certain African coffees like Kenyan beans, prized for their vibrant acidity and fruity notes, can also benefit from a medium roast, which enhances their sweetness while maintaining their distinct characteristics. 

Medium-Dark Roasts

Close up coffee beans
Photo by Pixabay

Medium-dark roasts represent a deeper, more intense stage in the roasting process. These beans have a rich, dark color with some oil on the surface, which gives them a slightly shiny appearance. The flavors are more robust, with the roasting process starting to dominate the beans' inherent characteristics.

Known types of medium-dark roasts include Full City, After Dinner and Vienna roasts. The roasting process for these beans is generally stopped in the middle of the second crack, a point at which the beans have lost most of their moisture, and the heat begins to break down the structure of the bean, creating a fuller body and deeper flavor.

Medium-dark roasts are notable for their full body and flavor notes can range from bittersweet and spicy to dark chocolate or slightly burnt sugar. The acidity is lower than in light and medium roasts, making the coffee smoother. These roasts are versatile and work well with many brewing methods, though they are particularly suited to espresso and French press, which highlight their full-bodied nature and complexity.

Coffees that are often medium-dark roasted include certain Indonesian and Central American varieties. For instance, Sumatran coffee, known for its full body and low acidity, often shines at this roast level. Similarly, some Guatemalan coffees, prized for their rich body and spice notes, can also be enhanced by a medium-dark roast, bringing out deeper flavor nuances while still maintaining some of the beans' original characteristics. 

Dark Roasts

Close-up of Coffee Beans on a Black Table
Photo by Boryslav Shoot

Dark roasts represent the final and most intense stage of the roasting process. These beans are dark brown, almost black in color, with a sheen of oil on the surface. At this roast level, the inherent flavors of the beans are mostly overtaken by the flavors from the roasting process.

Popular types of dark roasts include French, Italian and Spanish roasts. These roasts are often taken to the end of the second crack or even beyond, resulting in beans with lower acidity, higher bitterness and a fuller body compared to lighter roasts.

Dark roasts typically have a robust, heavy flavor, often with notes of dark chocolate, toast, or even burnt sugar. They can sometimes exhibit a slightly smoky or even charred taste due to the intensity of the roast. These roasts are often used for espresso due to their full body and low acidity, but they can also be used in other brewing methods like drip coffee or cold brew.

Beans that are typically dark roasted include certain robusta coffees, which are known for their higher caffeine content and strong, robust flavor. Additionally, some Latin American coffees like those from Brazil or Colombia can also be dark roasted to create a strong, bold coffee that is suitable for robust blends and espresso. Remember, the focus with dark roasts is less on the origin flavors of the beans and more on the roasting process's transformative properties. 

Specialty Roasts

Specialty roasts refer to coffee beans that have been roasted using unique methods or specific techniques that deviate from the traditional light, medium, or dark roast categories. These roasts can showcase the roaster's creativity and innovation, bringing out the distinct qualities of a particular coffee variety or creating a unique flavor profile.

A few examples of specialty roasts include:

  • Honey Processed Roast: A unique method where the coffee cherries' mucilage or 'honey' is left on during drying, which can lead to a roast that highlights sweetness and body, often with a note of fruitiness.
  • White Coffee: An extremely light roast, where beans are barely roasted at all, often resulting in a very acidic, nutty brew that retains a strong taste of the green bean.
  • Monsooned Coffee: A process specific to India, where harvested beans are exposed to monsoon rains and winds for several weeks, resulting in a distinctive, bold and earthy flavor profile.

Each specialty roast is a testament to the roaster's skills and offers a unique tasting experience for coffee lovers. These roasts are all about exploring the boundaries of flavor within the world of coffee and pushing the limits of what is possible within the roasting process. 

Choosing the Right Roast

Selective Focus Photography of Vintage Brown and Gray Coffee Grinder
Photo by Tom Swinnen

The world of coffee is diverse and expansive and choosing the right roast can often feel like a daunting task. The key is understanding that coffee, much like wine, is a matter of personal preference. Different roasts cater to different flavor profiles and preferences, ranging from the bright, acidic, and nuanced flavors of light roasts, to the bold, robust and smoky characteristics of dark roasts.

To find your perfect roast, consider starting with a medium roast, which offers a balanced flavor profile and then explore from there. Try out different types, from light to dark and note the flavors and characteristics you enjoy. Take time to savor each sip and identify the flavors and aromas you can detect. Is it fruity or nutty? Does it have a hint of chocolate or a touch of floral notes?

Also, consider experimenting with different brewing methods. The same beans can taste remarkably different when brewed with a French press compared to a pour-over or espresso machine. The brew method can alter the extraction of the flavors and impact the overall taste of your coffee. Remember, the journey to finding your perfect coffee is a process of exploration and discovery, so enjoy the ride!

In the end, the "right roast" is simply the one you enjoy the most. Whether you prefer the light, complex profile of an Ethiopian Yirgacheffe or the bold, robust intensity of a dark roasted Sumatran blend, the best coffee is the one that brings you the most pleasure. Don't be afraid to explore, experiment and step out of your comfort zone. The world of coffee is wide and varied and you never know when you might discover your next favorite roast.


Coffee is a universal beverage with a rich and diverse universe of flavors and aromas, largely influenced by the roast type. The roasting process is a crucial step in shaping the coffee's flavor profile, taking the humble green coffee bean and transforming it into the aromatic and flavorful ingredient we know and love.

From light roasts that preserve the original characteristics of the beans, to dark roasts that highlight the roasting process's influence, and to the creativity of specialty roasts, each type brings a unique set of flavors and experiences to the table.

While the journey of understanding coffee roasts might seem complex, it's a journey worth taking. It opens up a new world of tastes and experiences, helping you appreciate the intricate processes and craftsmanship that goes into every cup of coffee. As you explore the various coffee roasts, you'll also better understand your own flavor preferences and can ultimately enhance your coffee-drinking experience.

Whether you're a casual coffee drinker or a dedicated coffee aficionado, diving into the world of coffee roasts is a fascinating adventure. So, grab a cup, explore, taste and savor the many flavors that coffee roasts have to offer. Happy brewing!

Discover your perfect roast and elevate your coffee experience with the premium range of coffee beans and expertly crafted brewing equipment available at Kaffe Products. 

To dive deeper into the world of coffee and roasting, here are some excellent resources for you to explore:


Websites & Podcasts

  • Coffee Review: An extensive resource for coffee reviews, coffee education, and coffee information, with sections dedicated to the exploration of different roasts.
  • Perfect Daily Grind: An online coffee magazine featuring articles about coffee production, brewing techniques and coffee culture.
  • Barista Institute: An extensive resource with articles, recipes, and courses, catering to professionals and enthusiasts alike.
  • The Coffee Podcast: A podcast dedicated to everything coffee, including interviews with professionals in the coffee industry, discussions about coffee culture and explorations of the coffee supply chain.

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